The Warrant conferring (or authorising the hereditary succession to) a title was called a Sanad - sometimes spelt "sunnud". It was signed, on behalf of Her Majesty the Empress, by His Excellency the Viceroy; and beared the Official Seal of the Empire.
It was usual for the local representative of Her Majesty, on the occasion of the installation or succession of a Chief or Noble, to present him with a khillut, and receive from him a nazar in return. "Khillut" literally means "a Dress of Honour". It usually consisted of pieces of cloth not made up; but sometimes it consisted of arms, jewels, or other valuables, without any article of attire. Although in most cases a turban and shawl formed part of the gift. A complete khillut included arms, or a horse, or an elephant, or all of these together. The nazar (sometimes spelt nuzzur)had to be of corresponding value of the khillut.
In the case of a Mahárájá Bahádur, or other nobles of that rank, the khillut and sanad were presented in full Durbár, by the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, or other Chief Civil Officer of the Province; or if they were unable to be present, then by the Commissioner of the Division at the sadar-station (or capital).
The CeremonyAll the civil and military officers available, also all the Indian notables and gentry of the neighbourhood, were invited to the Durbar. The chair of the Presiding Officer was placed in the middle, and that of the nobleman to be installed on his right. The brother, son, and any of the relatives of the nobleman who may be present, occupied places, according to their station, in the right-hand line. The chairs for all the public functionaries were placed, according to their rank, on the left hand of the Presiding Officer's chair. The local notables and gentry occupied chairs, also according to their rank, on the right hand side of the Presiding Officer. A company of soldiers were drawn up in front of the stairs, as a Guard of Honour. On the arrival of the noble near the stairs, the Sarishtadar or Munshi of the Presiding Officer used to lead him to the audience. All functionaries and Darbaris were to assemble and take their seat before the Chiefs arrival.
After a short address by the Presiding officer, his Munshi used to take the Chief to an adjoining room, where he was robed with the different parchas of the khillut. After this, he was again brought into the Durbar room, and placed in front of the Presiding Officer. The latter, rising from his seat with all the functionaries present, then tied a pearl necklace round the neck of the Chief, while the Munshi used to read out the sanad. During the reading of the sanad the Presiding Officer and the functionaries resumed to their seats, while the Chief and the local notables and gentry used to stand. The Chief used to present the usual nazarána of gold mohurs, and then all resumed to their seat. Then upon the order of the Presiding Officer, attār (aroma) and paán (betel leaf) were served first to the newly-installed Chief, and then to all the Indian notables and gentry present. They all then took their leave, and the ceremony was ended.