Word : 

A title borne by Mohammedans, corresponding roughly to that of Raja among Hindus.

Under Mohammedan rule, the chief officer empowered to decide criminal cases.

A subdivision of a Native State, corresponding to a British District.

Nyāya, (Sanskrit: Rule, or Method), one of the six orthodox systems (darsana) of Indian philosophy, important for its analysis of logic and epistemology. The major contribution of the Nyāya system is its working out in profound detail the reasoning method of inference. The Nyāya philosophical system admits the existence of a supreme soul and in recognising analogy as akind of evidence in addition to the three kinds - perception, inference, and testimony. The speciality of the Nyāya is the development of dialectical method. It discusses methods of reasoning with the greatest subtlety. It starts with sixteen topics for discussion which leave nothing to be desired to the most contentious dialectician : First of all, there is the proof and the thing to be proved. The Nyāya syllogism consists of five parts - 1) the proposition, 2) the reason, 3) the instance, 4) the application of the reason, and 5) the conclusion. The following is a generally quoted instance of Nyaya syllogism :
  1. The hill is fiery (Proposition)
  2. For it smokes (Reason)
  3. Whatever smokes is fiery, as a kitchen (Instance)
  4. The hill is smoking (Application of the reason)
  5. Therefore it is fiery (Conclusion)

References :
  • A History of Hindu Civilisation During British Rule (1896) Vol 2 - By Pramatha Nath Bose

The Qanungo "was an officer in each district acquainted with its customs and land-tenures and whose appointment was usually hereditary. He received reports from the patwaris (land-stewards) of new cases of alluvion and diluvion, sales, leases, gifts of land". Over the district Qanungos, there was a Provincial Qanungo.

In the Ain-i-Akbari (Vol. II, p. 49) it is stated that it was the duty of the Betikchi or Accountant, "at the year's end, when the time of revenue collections had closed, to record the balances due, and deliver the record to the Collector, and forward a copy to the Royal Court" It would seem from the text that the same duty in regard to the entire Subah had to be performed by the Provincial Dewan and the Provincial Qanungo.

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