A non-commissioned native officer in the army or police.
The title of ofificials in various departments : now especially applied to subordinate controlling officers in the police and jail departments.
David Drummond (ডেভিড ড্রামন্ড) was a native of Fifeshire, Scotland, born in 1785, eleven years before the death of Robert Burns. Drummond was inspired by the ploughman poet, which filled all Scotland. A few of his songs, in the homely Doric of his native land, became popular. In 1813 Drummond left Scotland for ever, and landed in India. He lived with a friend at Berhampore Mr Christie for a short time, and was then appointed assistant on Rs 125 a month, with board and lodging, in the proprietory school of Messers. Wallace and Measures. A few years after he became sole proprietor; and the Dhurmotollah Academy (ধর্মতলা একাডেমি) under him speedily attained the highest position amongst the educational establishments of Calcutta, and aided high class English education among the European childresn, as well as to Eurasians and natives. The impetus given by Drummond to education in Calcutta awoke a spirit of competition; the means of education multiplied, and a healthy rivalry between schools of various sorts produced the happiest results.
Henry Louis Vivian Derozio was given formal education at this School of David Drummond, during his childhood (from eight to fourteen years of his age). Drummond was a good example of the best type of the old Scotch Dominie, a scholar and a gentleman, equally versed and well read in the classics, mathematics and metaphysics of his day. His culture and power of independent thinking impressed young Derozio. Drummond believed that opinions should be formed on the basis of science, logic and reason, and should not be influenced by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. The years Derozio spent at Drummond's academy were enough to school him in the classics and give him an understanding of Western traditions.
In the year 1829, shortly after the publication of his Objections to Phrenology, the intense application of stress coupled with improprieties in diet, completely broke down the health of Drummond. For two years 1828-30, Drummond sought to regain health by a residence in the Straits of Malacca, and left the care of his flourishing school to a Mr. Wilson. When he returned in 1830, with health little improved, the Academy had lost ground, and he was unable to carry on the heavy duties which the labour of a large school implied. Soon afterwards, with the money derived from the sale of the goodwill and furniture of his school, he retired to the General Hospital, where he remained for years an invalid. He could not teach, but he could write, and he thought he saw an opening for a weekly paper. Under the auspices of Drummond as proprietor, editor, reporter, the Weekly Examiner, "a journal of politics, news and literature" had an existence of nearly two years (1839-41). To this weekly newspaper both Dr. John Grant and D. L. Richardson frequently contributed, to help their old friend in his new venture; but the burden of the whole laid heavily on Drummond. By the middle of 1841, Drummond was again prostrate with spine disease. Unable to sit up to write or even to write in bed, his editorials were dictated in spasmodic gasps between the intervals of weakness and bodily agony. At last he gave the struggle up. After staying in India for 30 years on April of 1843, at the age of fifty-six, David Drummond, interloper and schoolmaster, slept the sleep that knows no waking, to such a life, at least, as that through which he had passed. He was burried at the South Park Street Cemetery, Calcutta.
The chief minister in a Native State.
Civil, especially revenue, administration; used generally in Northern India of civil justice and courts.