Najam-ud-Daulla নাজাম-উদ-দৌল্লা (1765-1766 AD)

During the wedding of Ekram-ud-Daulla the adopted son of Mehar-un-nisa (Ghaseti Begum) and Nawab Nawajesh Muhammad Khan two Baijees (Dancing girls) Munny and Babbu came from Lucknow. Their dance impressed Mir Jafar so much that he married both of them. Najam-ud-Daulla and Saif-ud-Daulla were the son of Munny Begum (Gaddinashin Begum), and Mubarak-ud-Daulla was the son of Babbu Begum. He was appointed as Heir Apparent with the title of 'Murshidzada Bahadur', by his father on 29th January 1764.

After the death of Mir Jafar, "Shuja-ul-Mulk, Najam-ud-Daulla, Mahabat Jang (Hero of the Country, Star of the State, Horror in War)" Nawab Najam-ud-Daulla became the Nawab of Bengal only at the age of 15 on 5th February 1765 (confirmed by the Honorable East India Company HEIC on 23rd February 1765). This cost him £ 140,000 divided among the members of the Calcutta Council. Mr. Nathaniel Middleton (Warren Hastings personal representative) and other European Gentlemen attended the proclamation of the young Nawab, at the Palace. Francis Sykes arrived at Moradbagh (near Heera Jheel) as resident at the Court of Nawab and appealed to the Nawab to disband his military maintained at a cost of 18 lakhs per annum. Also at this Durbar Muhammad Reza Khan, on the, recommendation of the English, received the appointment of Naib-i-Nizamat as Deputy Governor, and the title "Moin-u-Dowlah Mozuffer Jang". It was arranged that Najam-ud-Daulla should get a stipend of Rs 53,86,161 and 9 Anas (1 Rs = 12 Anas) per annum and the affairs of Government should he placed in the hands of Muhammad Reza Khan, Dullavram and Jagat Seth, the former of whom was charged with the payment of the Nawab's sepoys, horse, servants etc. as also the following stipends, namely :

Saif-ud-Daulla, the Nawabs brother
:
Rs 7,000 per annum
Mubarak-ud-Daulla, the Nawabs brother
:
Rs 5,000 per annum
Miran's son, the Nawabs nephew
:
Rs 5,000 per annum
The Begum and her family
:
Rs 6,000 per annum

The young Nawab was attractable and extremely polite. Francis Sykes secured from him hundred and six profitable Parwana, and the Zamindars were put entirely under the authority of the East India Company on whose behalf, the Governor and Council at Calcutta engaged by a treaty to secure to Najam-ud-Daulla the Subahdari of three provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and to assist Him with their troops in the defense of the provinces. He was formally installed on the Khahar Balish, at Murshidabad Palace, 3rd March 1765 (confirmed by Emperor Shah Alam II on 25th March 1765).
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Najam-ud-Daulla confirmed the treaty agreed with Mir Jafar; the Chuklas of Burdwan, Midnapur and Chittagong were confirmed to the Company for defraying the ordinary expenses of the troops, besides the grant of 5 lakhs annually, so long as the exigencies of keeping a large army continued. The business of the Government was to be transacted as heretofore at Murshidabad. Najam-ud-Daulla consented that an Englishman should reside at his Durbar as representative of the Company. He consented to pass rupees coined at Calcutta and to entertain no Europeans in his services. The entire Military force passed into and remained in the hands of the Company and they began to exercise an extensive control over the internal affairs of the Subah. Najam-ud-Daulla confirmed the duty-free private trading right of the Company's servants and agreed to the appointment of Muhammad Reza Khan, a known supporter of the English connection and then deputy at Dacca, as Dewan (or tax collector). The standard Mughal practice had been to invest the Nizamat, or police and judicial powers, and the Dewani, or revenue raising power, in different hands. By the 18th century, however, these offices had become boxed together. Both powers had been united in one person and the three provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa had been put under a single head. So the Dewans of Siraj-ud-Daulla and Mir Jafar had been their deputies, was now altered. The Company, as Dewan, was responsible to Shah Alam II only, while the Nawab retained control only of the judiciary and police. Poor Najam-ud-Daulla was now wholly dependent on the Company even for his personal expenses.

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The Directors of The East India Company induced Robert Clive to come to Bengal. Equipped with ample powers and placed beyond the control of the Calcutta Committee Clive arrived in 1765. On 7th May 1765 with his return to Calcutta, Clive formed a Select Committee, as provided for by the Court of Directors, to subsume the existing Council of Bengal and to provide ongoing civil and military administration. Its membership included : William B. Summer, Francis Sykes, John Carnac (c.1716-1800), Henry Verelst (d1785), and Clive. He charged the committee with handling military, political and revenue affairs. Clive negotiated for and secured the Dewani, the nature of which, according to him, was to collect the revenue and, after defraying the expenses of the army and allowing a sufficient fund for the expenses of the Nizamat, to remit the remainder to Delhi. This was not the office, which the Company were willing to execute. They therefore, entirely approved of preserving the old form of Government in upholding the dignity of the Subahdar. An agreement, securing the annual stipend of Rs 53,86,131 and 9 Anas (1 Rs = 12 Anas) per annum was signed in the presence of Clive in accordance with custom the Poonneah was held at Moti Jheel on the 29th April, 1766 AD, the first Poonneah of the Dewan Company. Clive sat on it side by side with Najam-ud-Daulla (Who sat on the Black Stone Throne of Moti Mahal, Mubarak Manzil).

On the 8th of May of the 1766 AD Najam-ud-Daulla died of fever caught at a party, given in honor of Clive on his way through Murshidabad to Lucknow, and was buried in Jafarganj Mokbara (Cemetery) on the west of Mir Jafar's grave. He was childless. Lord Clive received the news of Najam-ud-Daulla's death when he was on his way to Lucknow. He wrote letters to the members of the Calcutta Council to place Nawab Saif-ud-Daulla, the brother, and, according to the Mahamedan law, the rightful successor of the late Nawab, on the throne.

Page Updated : September 26, 2012 07:59 pm