The name Berhampore is an English transliteration of the vernacular name Bahrampur, the derivation of which is explained as follows by Mr. Beveridge
[ Old places in Murshidabad, Calcutta Review 1892
"Berhampore (Baharampur) seems to be a corruption of the Hindu name of the place Brahampur (ব্রহমপুর), i.e. the city of Brahma. Brahmapur (ব্রহ্মপুর) is the name which the original mouza, or
village, bears on the collector's revenue-roll. Probably the name comes from the place having been a settlement of Brahmanas. One of the
bathing places in the river is called Bipraghat or Brahman's ghat. The name does not appear to be in any way connected with the Muhammedan name Bahram. There is a place about 5 miles
to the north-east and on the high road to Murshidabad, which has the very similar name of Baharamganj. Probably this has the same origin as
Berhampore, though it may be connected with Bahram Jang, a son of Muhammad Raza Khan, otherwise Muzaffar Jang
who travelled (1608-1611) in Northern and Western India during the reigns of the
Emperors Akbar and Jahangir, in his travelloge writes about Berhampore :
[February] 8, ten Kos
to Bramport [Burhānpur], where I pitched my tent in the Armenians yard, not
being able for money to get an house, the town was so full of souldiers. Some 2
Kos short of this city lyeth Badurpore [Bahādurpur], a fair city, and between
these two cities the camps of Can-Canna under tents, 2 Kos in length (having some
fifteen thousand horse, two hundred faire elephants, an hundred peeces of
ordnance of all sizes) on the north side. On the other side, within twentie or
thirtie Kos, lay Amberchapon, an Abashed [Arabic Habashi, an Abyssinian]
and generall of the King of Decans forces, with some ten thousand of his
owne cost, all brave soldiers, and some forty thousand Decanees; in
so much that the city of Bramport had certainly been lost, had not the Prince
Sultan Pervis and Rajaw Manisengo [Rāja Mān Singh] come instantly down with great forces. For at
this time he had sent to the Can-Canna to yeeld up the city upon composition,
deeming him not able to hold it against him. This city is very great, but
beastly, situated in a low, unholsome aire, a very sickly place, caused
especially by the bad water. On the north-east is the castle on the rivers bank
(comming from Surat), large and well fortified. By the castles side in the river
lyeth an elephant of stone, so lively that a living elephant,
comming one day to drink, ran against it with all his force and broke both
his teeth. The head is painted red in the fore-head, and many simple Indians
worship it. Some two Kos forth of the city is Can Cannas garden,
called Loll bag [Lāl Bāgh], the whole way thereto being under shadie trees,
- Early travels in India, 1583-1619 (1921) - Sir William Foster C.I.E
The kos is an ancient Indian unit of distance that has been in use for over three
thousand years; evidence exists from Vedic times to the Mughal period, and even
now elderly people in rural areas refer to distances from nearby areas in kos.
A kos is about 2.25 miles. Back
Khān-khānān, the highest military title. It was borne at
this time by Mīrza Abdurrahīm (Mirza Abdul Rahim Khān-i-Khānā),
son of Bāirām Khān, Akbar's
celebrated general. He was in charge of the operations against the Deccan kings,
with head-quarters at Burhānpur. Back
Malik Ambar (an Abyssinian by birth) was a chief minister and generalissimo of Akbar. Back
Berhampore the headquarter of the district and situated on the eastern bank of the Bhagirathi,
is 9 km south of Murshidabad and 187 km (by rail) north of Calcutta.
It is connected with the latter by the Lalgola branch of the Eastern Railway the alighting
station being called Berhampore Court
. Out of the several buildings, the finest one
is of the Krishnath College to the south of the barracks, established in 1853.
This College was formerly known as the Berhampore College and the present name has been
given to it, in memory of Raja Krishnath Roy
(রাজা কৃষ্ণনাথ রায়
the husband of Maharani Swarnomoyee
who had died in 1844. The College has an imposing building and a fine clock tower.
The roof of the College is of expensive wood shingles.
Berhampore town is an early possessor of water-works which it owes to the generosity of the
late Maharani Swarnomoyee, who in 1894, undertook to furnish it with a supply of filtered water.
Being the land of business and administrative function, Berhampore at present is a
fully grown up area (24°,10' North latitude to 88°,15' East longitude).
Krishnath College (কৃষ্ণনাথ কলেজ)
The history of Krishnath College
), styled after England's Oxford University, is a part of the
history of western education in Bengal and, in a wider sense, forms a chapter in the history of social and cultural
progress of Bengal in the 19th
centuries. Long, before 1853, the year of the birth
of this Institution, the objective conditions were ready for the foundation of a college at Berhampore for
imparting western education. During the thirties and forties of the last century the people of Murshidabad
felt the impulse of the Renaissance which had its start in Calcutta with the foundation of the Hindu College
in 1817 AD. For two decades the idea of western education had struck root; attempts and experiments had been made;
but the aspirations of the people remained unrealized. When at last, in 1853 AD, a College was founded at
Berhampore, and was named "Berhampore College
". When the College was started in 1853, the rate of fees were Rs 2 for the
College classes and the first school class and Re 1 for all the other classes.
The foundation of the present college building was laid by Sir Cecil Beadon
the then Lieutenant Governor,
on Wednesday, the 29th
[Location Map - Krishnath College, Berhampore : 24°05'29"N 88°14'45"E
Krishnath College School (কৃষ্ণনাথ কলেজ স্কুল)
The School was part of "Berhampore College
", established in November, 1853 AD.
It first started in the building now known as the Manindra Hostel (or Main Hostel).
In 1909 a portion of the Jail compound (now the Borstal School compound) was allotted and given over to
the school authorities for the construction of the present school house.
The foundation stone was laid by the Hon'ble Sir Edward Norman Baker
, K.C.S.I., the then Lieutenant
Governor of Bengal, on the 9th
of August, 1909. In August 1911, the school was formally opened by
Lord Fraser William
Duke, the then officiating Governor of Bengal who,
also presided over the Prize distribution ceremony held on that day and distributed the prizes.
The School is a magnificent two storyed building with as many as 30 rooms one of which is the Hall on the
floor. The Hall is unique of its kind, measuring 115 ft 10 in x 40 ft 5 in x 25 ft 5 in,
and can accommodate about 800 people. The School premises occupy only 4 bighas of land almost sandwiched
between the Jail compound on the north and the west and Grant hall Road and Manindra Road on the south and
[Location Map Krishnath College School, Berhampore : 24°06'01"N 88°15'03"E
The Berhampore Cantonment
The barracks round the Square Field
at Berhampore [Location Map - Square Field, Berhampore :
, which is a lawn of about 40 acres,
and which is one of the most beautiful in Bengal, were erected in 1767 AD. Each side of the Square field is 402.36 metres (161894 sq metres in area). Berhampore was selected as
the site for a cantonment in October 1757, After the destruction of the
fortifications at Cossimbazar and the decisive victory of Robert Clive's
troops at Plassey.
Mr. John Brohier
who was deputed for the purpose, arrived at Cossimbazar on the 5th
of October, 1757,
and reported that the principal part of the factory at Cossimbazar had been burnt down and that the fortifications
of the factory were incapable of being repaired effectually. He suggested the construction of a fort,
and also submitted the plan of a citadel and fortifications with which he considered it necessary to enclose
the place. According to his estimate 12,000 tank diggers and 5,000 coolies
were required to ram the ground, clear away rubbish, fill up tanks, bring in brush wood, serve brick layers
and do other things.
given by Mir Jafar granted to the Company 133 acres of land; but the Directors in England
declined, at that time, to sanction the works. Later on, sanction being given, the barracks were
commenced in 1765, and completed in two years (1767 AD), at a cost of £ 302,270. The Barracks were at that time looked upon as the
Northern Frontier Station of the Bengal Army. It was found that the price of materials were three times as much as in Calcutta.
In 1768 the Chief of Murshidabad appointed a committee to inquire into the
exorbitant charges which had been made; and three covenanted officials were suspended, for overcharges amounting to two lacks of rupees.
On Western side of the Square field, near the banks of Ganges, were the
quarters of high ranking officers (presently the District Magistrates bungalow).
On the eastern side were the soldiers quarter on a three storied building.
The other officers stayed on the northern and southern part of the field. The barracks were constructed under Chief engineer
Colonel Archibald Campbell
The British East India Company
The plan of a fort was subsequently abandoned, the importance of Murshidabad sinking with the rise of Calcutta.
As the need for a strong garrison disappeared troops
were removed, and in 1857 there were no European troops to check the mutinous outbreak, only two
guns and a battalion of native infantry, the 19th
, and a battalion of irregular native cavalry. The
European troops brought from Rangoon to check the mutiny were quartered in the barracks and
were not finally withdrawn until 1870. In those days the Civil Court and Treasury buildings were about
a mile to the south-east of the barracks. These are now occupied only by the Sessions Judge's Court
The Cantonment of Berhampore will always be remembered as the scene of the first overt act of
the Indian mutiny of 1857 AD
It must be remembered that there were no British troops
in Berhampore cantonment at that time, and none anywhere nearer than Calcutta.
The native troops at Berhampore, in February, 1857, were the 19th
a corps of irregular cavalry, and a battery of artillery with native gunners.
"There were in the morning no apparent signs of disaifection, but, before the evening had passed away,
Adjutant M. Andrew carried to the quarters of Colonel Mitchell a disquieting report, to the eifect that there
was great excitement in the Lines; that when their percussion-caps had been served out to them for the morning's
parade, the men had refused to take them, and that they had given as the ground of their refusal the strong suspicion they entertained that the cartridges had been defiled
Under the guidance of Colonel Charles Macgregor
, the Nawab Nazim Feradun Jah
) of Bengal threw the weight of his influence into the scales on the side of order and peace, and the
the mutiny of a regiment which might have been converted into the rebellion of a Province, was suppressed.
Later The 19th
Regiment was marched down to Barrackpur, to be there disbanded as a punishment for the outbreak.
Already, before the disgrace of the mutiny of 1857 was forgotten, Berhampore
was the theatre of another display of rebellion in 1859. This time it was not our
native troops that had revolted, but a section of the British Army.
In May, 1859, one of these regiments, the 5th
Battalion, The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers), stationed at
Berhampore, broke into open rebellion.
Bisnupur Kalibari (বিষ্ণুপুর কালিবাড়ী)
The Kali temple, situated a mile to the South of Cossimbazar, near to Berhampore, was built by
, the gomasta
of The East India Company
It is situated on the banks of the old bed of the Cossimbazar river.
Every Tuesday and Saturday a large number of devotees attend to offer Puja.
[Location Map - Bisnupur Kalibari, Berhampore :
Grant Hall (গ্র্যান্টহল)
The town hall of Berhampore, founded in honor of Sir John Peter Grant
(1859-1862), the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal,
is vested in Trustees, one of whom was Babu Dinanath Ganguly
, the veteran lawyer of the Berhampore Bar.
The house, which was converted into the Grant Hall, belonged originally to Mr. J. Marion
, Superintendent of the Nizamat Palace.
During the earthquaqe of 1897 AD, the Old building was destroyed and a new one was rebuilt in 1911 AD.
In 1903 AD, Edward Recreation Club
(এডওয়ার্ড রিক্রিয়েশন ক্লাব
), and library was formed upon the Initiative of
Maharaja Sir Manindra Chandra Nandy (মহারাজা স্যার মনিন্দ্র চন্দ্র নন্দী
) of Cossimbazar and
the Maharaja of Lalgola, Raja Rao Jogendra Narayan Roy
(রাজা রাও যোগেন্দ্র নারায়ন রায়
with other notable personalities of berhampore, like
Baikuntha Nath Sen
Radhika Mohan Sen
Ramoni Mohon Sen
Kedar Nath Chowdhury
(কেদার নাথ চৌধুরী
Domon Prasad Mukherjee
(ডোমন প্রসাদ মুখোপাধ্যায়
Jogendra Nath Mukherjee
Raja Rao Jogendra Narayan Roy
donated for the construction of this Club House. After Independence, in 1947 AD the Club House was named after the
Maharaja of Lalgola as Jogendra Narayan Miloni
(যোগেন্দ্র নারায়ণ মিলনী
Library of this Club was the oldest one, and had a collection of about 15000 books. The total area of the enclosure is 1.5 Bigha. There was a Tennis court on the northern side of the compound.
[Location Map - Grant Hall, Berhampore : 24°05'59"N 88°15'07"E
The Berhampore branch of the London Missionary Society
was founded in 1824 AD,
when Mr Micaiah Hill
was sent from Calcutta. Mr. and Mrs. Hill opened seven schools
for Hindus, and two for Mohamedan boys. One was started by Mrs. Hill for girls.
In 1827 Mrs. Hill opened a second girls school. Mr. Hill had opened three native chapels and three preaching stations.
For some part of 1827 Mr. and Mrs. Hill were assisted by Mr. Gogerly
. On January 7th
, 1829, large new chapel was completed.
To provide funds for a church, in 1838, Mr. Hill planted mulberry extensively, and kept silkworms,
which were tended by the orphans. In 1838 Mr. Hill left, and Mr. Lessel
took his place.
Hill returned in 1842, and the two worked together until 1847, when Hill was transferred to Calcutta.
September, 1847 Mary
the wife of Micaiah Hill died at the age of 57.
In 1849 James Bradbury
came to Berhampur; in 1853 Samuel John Hill
son of Micaiah, came to the scene of his father's labours.
Frebruary, 1849 Micaiah Hill
died on the river near Benaras aged 59 Years.
From 1879 to 1883 the orphanage was managed by Mrs. Phillips
. Miss Bloomfield
arrived in 1883,
and the work among women was further developed. She was shortly after joined by Miss Robinson.
Between 1890 and 1895 the Mission in Murshidabad district was much strengthened by the addition to
the staff of the Reverend Andrew Sims
and Alfred Joyce
, Miss Tuck
, and Miss Nicholas
(In February 17th, 1897 Reverend John Alfred Joyce and Miss Nicholas, M.D., got married
There were also three native pastors: Kali Prasanna Mukerji
Berhampur; Paul Biswas
, at Jiaganj; and Surendra Kumar Ghose
at Murshidabad. In 1896 the Berhampur orphanage
was a thing of the past. A Christian community of sixteen households lived on the "magazine
land, low, damp, and with bad drinking water.
The present Church was erected in 1925-26 AD on the foundation of the old London Missionary Society (L.M.S.) English
Chapel built in 1829 AD by Reverend Micaiah Hill
. That Chapel having collapsed in
consequence of the earthquakes of 1897 and 1918, the memorial tablets erected in the earlier building have
been re-erected in this Church.
[Location Map - Congregational Church, Berhampore :
The inspection of the project for erecting this church was due to the faith and self-sacrifice of
Reverend Kali Prasanna Mukherji
, M.A. Pastor from 1893 till his death in 1921. A service of
re-dedication of the foundations took place on December 15th
1924 AD during the pastorate of the
Reverend Paul Biswas (died 1926 AD).
The present building was opened for worship on january 1st
1927 during the pastorate of the
Reverend Surendra Kumar Ghosh
, B.A. (died 1936 AD). Names of other pastors of the English or Bengali
Congregations that worshipped in the earlier building here and in the original L.M.S. Bengali Chapel in the
' which was ruined by the 1897 earthquaqe are :
|1824 Reverend Micaiah Hill
||Died 1849 AD
|1832 Reverend James Paterson
||Died 1854 AD
|1838 Reverend Thomas Lessel
||Died 1884 AD
|1849 Reverend James Bradbury
||Died 1892 AD
|1853 Reverend Samuel John Hill
||Died 1891 AD
|1861 Reverend George Shrewsbury
||Died 1913 AD
|1868 Reverend Nanda Lal Doss
||Died 1916 AD
|1875 Reverend William B. Phillips
||Died 1896 AD
|1881 Reverend Chandra N. Banerji, B.A.
||Died 1897 AD
|Reverend Kali Pada Banerji
|1891 Reverend William G. Brockway, B.A.
||Died 1929 AD
|1892 Reverend Andrew Sims, B.A.
|1892 Reverend John Alfred Joyce (Jiaganj)
||Died 1927 AD
The Berhampore cemetery contains the tombs of military men and their family.
Unfortunately, many of the epitaphs have entirely disappeared.
To the east of the cemetry lie the tombs of the burma state pensioneres who died at Berhampore.
In the enclosure are several monuments and tombs, and among which are the following :
- Captain James Skinner - 1773 AD (the oldest monument)
- Captain John Friend - 1787 AD
- Frederick W.S. Griffiths - 1791 AD
- Danniel Robinson Leckie, who was Registrar of the Dewani Adalat of Murshidabad City and died in 1792 AD
- Neil Rainy - 1793 AD
- Caroline Brown - 1798 AD
- John Wilson - 1803 AD
- Captain Lambert - 1805 AD
- Adam Frere - 1811 AD
- Colonel Mitchel - 1833 AD
- Captain R. Boileau Pemberton, who died at Berhampore, as Governor-General's Agent, on 26th June, 1840 AD
- Colin Shakespere - Of the Civil Service died on 6th April, 1835 AD at the age of 64.
- George Thomas, the Irish Adventurer of Rajputana
- Henry Creighton of Goamalti, the explorer and antiquary of Gour. He was the first to make drawings of the ruins of Gour.
Henry Sherwood child of Mary Martha Sherwood
, who died of whooping cough, is burried here.
It is often said that Henry was the original hero of The History of Little Henry and his Bearer
She frequently named the heroes and heroines of her books after her late children.
Henry Sherwood was born in 1805 at Dinajpore and died at Berhampore on July 22nd 1807, when he was only 19 months old.
The tombstone inscription read "Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven
In another part of the graveyard there is a graveyard of two children, Martha and Mary Jackson,
who died in a strom near Jangipore on 12th May, 1815. There was also a tomb of a child, with a beautiful marble tree and with an
inscription "Sleep on dear child and take thy rest, the lord calls those first whom he loves best
", which no longer exists.
Creighton and William Grant of Chandny, whose grave lay side by side, were both friends. Creighton dying on 2nd October, 1807, and Grant on 23rd.
Probably they left Gour together for Chandny a factory situated on the Pagla River 3 miles from Gour. In Grant's
tomb inscription it was written that he left Rs 40,000 for the purpose of supporting Christianity, and for translating the
Scriptures into the Eastern languages. He died at the age of 38 and Creighton at 44.
David Drummond ডেভিড ড্রামন্ড
(1785 - 1843 AD) the Scottish Poet, came to India
in 1813 as an "Interloper
". He lived at Berhampore for a short time during the month of November 1813,
with his friend Mr. Christie
. Berhampore at that time was known as "Berhampore Cantonment", since the township
was not developed.. During Drummond's stay he wrote an Elegy 
) of 168 lines, with 42 stanzas, and at last it was written
- "Written in the Military officer's burying ground, at the cantonments of Berhampore, Bengal
". The oldest Cemetery
of Berhampore is the Berhampore Cemetery, and is quite probable that the Elegy was written here.
The elegy starts as ::
|The raging sun at length, has reached the West
||তাপিত ভাস্কর ক্রমে পশ্চিম দিগন্তে উপনীত
|And faintlier now his burning darts are hurl'd;
||ধীরে নম্র হয় তার ক্ষিপ্ত তীরগুলির প্রতাপ,
|But, proudly rolling to his cave of rest,
||তবু অহংকারে দীপ্যমান ওই বিশ্রামের গুহা
|His red brow threatens, as it leaves, the World!
||পৃথিবী ছাড়ার আগে রক্ত ভুরু আতঙ্ক ছড়ায়।
In this Elegy Drummond also protested against the aggressive mentality of the British, he wrote ::
|How long, O'er these bright regious of the sun,
||সূর্য করোজ্জ্বল এই দেশের উপর কতদিন
|Shall reign the dreary midnight of the mind ?
||আধিপত্য করবে বিষন্ন চিন্তা মধ্যরজনীর ?
|How long her course shall pale delusion run ?
||কতদিন তার দত্ত চালাবে এমন প্রবঞ্চনা
|And time-chained ignorance in brute mankind?
||মানুষকে কালবদ্ধ অজ্ঞতা করবে মেধাহীন ?
left "Berhampore Cantonment" on December, 1813.
In 1814 he was appointed as the teacher of the Dhurmotollah Academy (ধর্মতলা একাডেমি
Henry Louis Vivian Derozio
was given formal education at this School of David Drummond, during his childhood.
After staying in India for 30 years on April of 1843, at the age of fifty-six, David Drummond,
interloper and schoolmaster, slept the sleep that knows no waking, to such a life, at least,
as that through which he had passed. He was burried at the South Park Street Cemetery
[Location Map - Berhampore Cemetery :
- Henry Derozio the Eurasian Poet, Teacher and Journalist - By Thomas Edwards
- Murshidabader Kobitacharchar Dhara - By Sayed Khaled Nawman [মুর্শিদাবাদের কবিতাচর্চার ধারা - সৈয়দ খালেদ নৌমান]
-  An Elegy is a song or poem expressing
sorrow or lamentation especially for one who is dead. Back
There were many important Armenian merchants and traders in the flourishing settlements of Saidabad
(Cossimbazar). The Armenians played a very significant role in Bengal trade and
politics from at least around the early 17th
Their presence was a common feature in all the important centres of trade and manufacture,
cities and ports.
An Armenian colony was established here in 1665 AD, by virtue of a royal farman
issued by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
, granting the Armenians a piece of land in Saidabad, a suburb of Murshidabad.
Khojah Petrus Arathoon
was the head of the Armenian community in Calcutta
and was held in high esteem by his compatriots for his benevolence and his charities.
Khojah Petrus built the Saidabad Armenian Church in 1758 AD at his own expense and in memory of his parents.
The cost of building the Church was two lakhs and thirty six thousand rupees.
Another prominent Armenian merchant who lived in Saidabad was Manatsaken Sumbat Vardon
He was the founder of the Armenian College established in 2nd
Manatsaken Vardon departed this life at Saidabad on the 13th
October 1827 at the age of 55 years having been born in Julfa
(Armenian Quarter) Ispahan
on the 6th
He was buried in the church in Saidabad.
The Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary was built in 1758 AD and the last service was held
there in 1860 after which the church remained closed for nearly a century because the
Armenians left towards the end of 1860 due to the decline of commerce and trade.
Successive caretakers looked after it, the last being the late Mr. Mathevos Carapiet
served there between 1908 and 1952. His wife Mary, continued to look after it until her death
in 1968 AD. On the 5th
December 2006 the Armenian Apostolic Church of Holy Virgin
Mary of Saidabad was reconsecrated by His Eminence Archbishop Aghan Baliozian
[Location Map - Armenian Church, Saidabad : 24°07'21"N 88°15'23"E
Armenian Church Gallery
Saidabad Palace (সৈদাবাদ রাজবাড়ী)
This palace belonged to Maharani Swarnomoyee
), the queen of
Maharani Swarnomoyee spent her last days here, before her death on August 25, 1897.
Recently restoration work was carried on this building. Once the District library was located here, now a portion of it houses the Berhampore Town Library.
[Location Map Saidabad Palace, Saidabad : 24°07'22"N 88°14'56"E
Kunjaghata Palace (কুঞ্জঘাটা রাজবাড়ী)
The Kunjaghata Palace at Saidabad, belonged to Maharaja Nanda Kumar
) son-in-law Jagat Chand
The Maharaja and his family stayed at the Kunjaghata Palace in 1755 AD and his personal belongings,
including his letters, shawl and sword are preserved here.
The original residence of Nanda Kumar was at Bhadrapur
in the Birbhum District.
He may have lived occasionally at Kunjaghata after his daughter Sumani's
The structure of this building is ruined to an extent with the evolution of time.
The Palace also contains several valuable documents and records during Nanda Kumar's rule.
The Palace had an unique Durga Dalan
(place where Goddesses Durga is worshiped
The palace has Hindu icons of Lord Shiva, Goddesses Lakshmi, Narayan and Krishna in its temples.
The chief objects of interest at the Raj Bari are several farmans
and an original painting of
(name of Krishna in Puranic literature
is said to
have a picture of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
during the lifetime of the Master.
of Puri, had ordered a likeness of Chaitanya to be painted in water-colours,
in which the King himself is represented as lying prostrate before his great religious master.
This picture was made sometime between 1512-1533 AD and is said to have been carried to Nadiya by
. From his descendants, it passed to the family of Raja Nanda Kumar.
was disciple of Radhamohana Thakura
the great-great-grandson of Srinivasa Acarya
The painting possessed the unique historical importance of having been made
during the lifetime of Lord Gouranga
475 years ago, and was an object of the history of the rise and progress of the great Vaisnava movement in Bengal and Orissa.
On the painting it can be seen King Prataparudra (রাজা প্রতাপরুদ্র
) of Puri, bowing to Chaitanya.
) reading Gita
along with Advaitacharya (অদ্বৈত আচার্য
yavana Haridasa (যবন হরিদাস
) standing at a distance.
[Location Map Kunjaghata Palace, Saidabad : 24°07'38"N 88°15'8"E
- Chaitanya's life and Teachings, Chaitanya-charit-amrita translated into English (1922) - By Jadunath Sarkar
- Chaitanya and His Companions (1917) - By Rai Sahib Dinesh Chandra Sen
The famous Chinese traveler Xuanzang, earlier referred to Hiuen Tsang
mentioned in his travelogues about Lo-to-mo-chi Rakta-mrittikā Mahavihara
an important centre of learning of Vajrayani Buddhists. It has been identified with
Rajbari Danga (রাজবাড়ীডাঙ্গা
) at Jadupur, District Murshidabad.
The archaeological site of Rajbari Danga, is 2.4 Km from Karnasubarna (কর্ণসুবর্ণ
) railway station
earlier known as Chiruti (চিরুটী
) on the Azimganj-Katwa section of Eastern Railway.
The site was first excavated by archaeologists of Calcutta University in 1962 under Dr S.R. Das
The mound at Rajbari Danga is 503,500 sq ft in area.
Amongst the findings, the most significant one was a monastic sealing bearing the legend
Shri Rakta-mrittikā Mahavaiharik arya bhikshu samghasya
of the community of venerable monks
residing in the Rakta-mrittikā Mahavihara.
The other significant findings are terracotta figurines and ornamental
stucco mouldings including human heads. The other sites close by have been excavated at
Rakshashi Danga রাক্ষসীডাঙা
(measuring 700 feet in circumference
Sanyasi Danga সন্ন্যাসীডাঙা
Bhimki Tala ভীমকিতলা
in 1929-30 by K.N. Dixit
of the Archaeological Survey of India and Nilkuthi Mound
According to Amal Roy
, the superintendent of the state archaeology department team camping at Rakshashi Danga, "None of them has been fully explored
Karnasubarna was an ancient capital of King Gaureshwar Shashanka
), the king of Gauda
. The town is also associated with Lord Gautama Buddha,
who stayed at Karnasubarna for seven days. To commemorate the sanctifying presence of the Buddha, a Buddhist
Vihar was built in the front courtyard of the King's palace. Emperor Ashoka also enshrined the Buddha's
presence at Karnasubarna with an Ashoka Stupa, the Emperor's legendary stone landmark. The Buddhist Vihar of
Karnasubarna was also consecrated with the Ashoka Stupa.
the famous Chinese pilgrim and a Buddhist scholar who travelled India extensively during the period from
629 AD to 645 AD during the reign of Harshavardhana
, mentioned in his famous travelogue ie,
(the Buddhist record of western countries
) that he had visited the capital city of
Karnasubarna in the year 638 AD and saw in his own eyes the palace, the Rakta-mrittikā Mahavihara
and a Buddhist Stupa
said to be built by King Ashoka. The travel account left by Hiuen Tsang is an important source of Indian history.
Early history of Bengal is still shrouded in obscurity for want of historical resources.
As such travel account of Hiuen Tsang appears to be a very important resource to the historians.
Download Hiuen Tsang's Route Map :: hiuen-tsang-route-map.pdf
How to Reach
Located on the Katawa - Azimganj rail line, Karnasubarna is best reached via Berhampore.
It is best to take a local bus to Khagra Ghat Station, followed by a local train ride to Karnasubarna (earlier Chiruti চিরুটী
By Road :
One can also hire a car and take the route from Berhampore
Uttar Para more (turn left)
Berhampore Bus stand to Uttar Para more - 2 Km
Uttar Para moreto Jadupur more - 9.8 Km
By Rail :
Berhampore Bus stand
Karnasubarna Station (Chiruti)
Berhampore Bus stand to Khagraghat Station - 4.5 Km
Khagraghat Station to Karnasubarna Station (Chiruti) - 11 Km
Karnasubarna Station (Chiruti) to Rajbari Danga - 2.4 Km.
[Location Map - Karnasubarna (Chiruti) Station : 24°01'35"N 88°10'40"E
Download Route Map :: karnasubarna-map.pdf
- Bengal District Gazetteers, Murshidabad - By L.S.S. O'Malley (1914)
- A history of Murshidabad District (Bengal) With Biographies Of Some Of Its Noted Families (1902) - By John Henry Tull
- History of the Armenians in India from the Earliest Times to the Present Day - Mesrovb Jacob Seth (1897)
- Studying Early India: Archaeology, Texts and Historical Issues - By Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya
- Indian Archaeology - 1962-63 A Review, Edited by A Ghosh, Director General of Archaeology in India
- Si-yu-ki, Buddhist records of the Western world (1884) - By Hsuan-tsang ca.596-664 translated By Samuel Beal 1825-1889.
- The literature of Bengal - By Romesh Chunder Dutt (1895)
-  A History of the Sepoy War in India, 1857-58 - By John William Kaye (1875) Back
- A Statistical Account of Bengal - By William Wilson Hunter, Herbert Hope Risley, Hermann Michael Kisch