The Cossimbazar Raj Family কাশিমবাজার রাজ পরিবার

Coat of Arms Cossimbazar Raj
Coat of Arms Cossimbazar Raj
The founder of the Cossimbazar house was Kali Nath Nandy of Shijna সিজনা, under Manteshwar মন্তেশ্বর police station area, in Burdwan district. His grandson, Radha Krishna Nandy, kept a shop where he sold silk, kites and betel-nuts. His eldest son, Krishna Kanta Nandy, better known as Kanta Babu (কান্ত বাবু), rose to eminence and wealth under the auspices of Warren Hastings, who first came to Murshidabad in 1753 AD. Cossimbazar at that time was a commercial hub. From Shijna Kanta Babu's ancestor's came to Sripur, to try their fortune in trade, with the Europeans. There are two views about who first settled at Sripur. Some beleive that it was Kali Nath Nandy, while others beleive that it was Kali Nath Nandy's son Sitaram Nandy (father of Radha Krishna Nandy), was the first to settle at Sripur, Cossimbazar. The Cossimbazar family was long connected with the silk business, mainly provision of raw silk and silk goods to the English Company. The first fruitful connection of the family with the new administration began at the time of Kanta Babu, whose skill in testing the quality of silk goods and whose provision of commercial credit to Hastings in his capacity as a private trader, led Hastings to employ him as writer (when Hastings became commercial resident at Cossimbazar). The intimacy grew, so much that when the new farming system of Hastings (1771-1777 AD) enabled him to distribute favours among his favourites. This resulted in the partial supersession of many old zamindars of Bengal. Kanta Babu managed to get some of the very valuable estates, including the rich Baharband (বাহারবন্দ) pargana of Rangpur, the first estate in Bengal to be 'permanently settled' with very low revenue demand. The pargana of Baharband was donated by Rani Satyabati সত্যাবতী (who left for Benaras), to Rani Bhavani.

While Hastings was Commercial Resident of The East India Company at Cossimbazar, Siraj-ud-Daulla (সিরাজ-উদ-দৌল্লা), then Nawab Nazim of Bengal, ordered his arrest, in order to extort money from him. The settlement was seized and Hastings sent as prisoner to Murshidabad, but he escaped while the Nawab marched on Calcutta. A re-capture was ordered, and Hastings took counsel with Kanta Babu, who was known to him in connection with his employment in the East India Company's affairs. Hastings was sheltered in Kanta Babu's house and then taken in a boat down to Calcutta. In appreciation of the service rendered him, Hastings promised Kanta Babu to advance him in life when circumstances should be favourable. After the battle of Plassey Warren Hastings was appointed Agent of the East India Company in the court of Mir Jafar. In 1761 AD he was promoted to the office of member of council in Calcutta. In 1764 AD he returned to England and remained there four years. In 1769 AD he returned to India as member of council at Madras. Early in 1772 AD he succeeded Mr. Cartier as Governor of Bengal. On his appointment as Governor of Bengal in 1772, Warren Hastings sent for Kanta Babu, and employed him as his Banyan (bn: বেনিয়া). About this time Kanta Babu was directly, or indirectly, the superintendent of several highly productive Zamindaries. But being not well versed in Zamindary he was associated with Dewan Ganga Gobinda Sinha, The founder of the Kandhi Raj Family. Ganga Gobind Sinha rendered most valuable assistance to his friend Kanta Babu. For the purpose of beaing always near him he built a house at Charakdanga near Pathuriaghata,later known as Lala Babu's house.

In 1775 AD (Bengali: 1181 ১১৮১) the Zamindary of Baharband was forcibly acquired by Hastings and was given to Lokenath son of Kanta Babu on Lease (ijārā ইজারা). Later in 1179 AD (Bengali 3 bhadra 1183 ৩ ভাদ্র ১১৮৩) the ijārā was settled on Rs 82,639. By the year 1773 AD, Kanta Babu possessed, or was concerned in the Zamindary of no less than 19 parganas or districts, in different parts of Bengal. The united rent-roll of which was 13,33,664 rupees; in 1774 AD, the rent-roll of the territory so farmed was 13,46,152 rupees; in 1775 AD, 13,67,796 rupees; in 1776 AD, it was 13,88,346, rupees; and in 1777 AD the last year of the existing or quinquennial settlement, it was 14,11,885 rupees. At the end of the second year, he was allowed to relinquish three of the farms, on which there was an increasing rent. When in 14th August, 1781 AD Hastings marched against Raja Chait Singh (চৈত সিং) King of Kashi (কাশী Benares), Kanta Babu accompanied him as his Dewan. Chait Singh was defeated; Kanta Babu influenced Hastings to Protect Panna (পান্না) the Queen of Chait Singh and other women from oppression, and provided a safe passage for them. Queen Panna felt gratified and gifted Kanta Babu jeweleries and offered a Lakshmi-Narayan Sila (śālagrāma) [1] (লক্ষ্মীনারায়ন সিলা, শালগ্রাম), a Dakshinavarta Shankh [2] ("right-turned" conch shell দক্ষিণাবর্ত শঙ্খ) and a one faced Rudraksha [3] (একমুখী রুদ্রাক্ষ). On his return, Hastings bestowed upon Kanta Babu a jaghir, in Ghazipur, and obtained from the then Nawab Nazim the title of "Maharaja Bahadur", for his son Lokenath. Kanta Babu received as a present the Sang-i-dalan (Marble Hall) of Benares. This was removed and re-erected at the Cossimbazar Palace. The Lakshmi-Narayan Sila was installed at his Palace. The Sila, Shankh and Rudraksha are preserved at the Garbhagriha (গর্ভগৃহ "womb chamber" or the innermost sanctum of a Hindu temple where resides the idol or icon of the primary deity of the temple) of the Cossimbazar Palace Lakshmi-Narayan Temple.

Kanta Babu died in 1778 AD (Pous 1185 B.S.), leaving a vast property in several districts of Bengal, Rangpur, Dinajpur, Burdwan, Nadia, Birbhum, Pabna (in Bangladesh), Murshidabad, Faridpur (in Bangladesh), Rajshahi (in Bangladesh), Bogra (in Bangladesh), and the 24 Parganas, besides the jagir in Ghazipur.

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Raja Harinath (রাজা হরিনাথ) [1803-1832 AD]

Krishna Kanta Nandy's son and heir, Maharaja Lokenath, Rai Bahadur, represented the Cossimbazar House for 13 years, during the latter half of which he suffered from an incurable disease. This prevented him from doing anything worthy of note. He died in 1804 AD (1211 B.S.), leaving a son Kumar Harinath, an infant one year old. During the minority of Kumar Harinath the estate was managed by the Court of Wards. Harinath obtained his majority in 1820 AD (1227 B.S.). He contributed Rs. 15,000, towards the establishment of the Hindu College, and gave away large sums in many acts of charity. Lord Amherst conferred on him the title of "Raja Bahadur", in recognition of these acts of benevolence. Raja Harinath was soon after involved in a heavy and prolonged lawsuit with his kinsmen, Syama Charan Nandy and Ram Charan Nandy. The claim of the suit, which was instituted in the Supreme Court, was laid at half the share of the estate. The case was dismissed, but the worry and trouble haunted him. Sanskrit learning greatly flourished in Cossimbazar, owing to the support and encouragement it received by Raja Harinath. There were several Chatushpathis (চতুষ্পাঠী), to which students flocked from several districts. The chief of the Pandits was Krishnanath Nyáyapanchánan Mahámahopádhyáy[4]. He was very fond of music and athletics, and maintained a gymnasium to encourage wrestling and sword-play. He was profoundly versed, not only in Natya Sastra, but also in Smriti. He had studied Nyáya at Nadia and was considered a first-rate Naiyayik. Raja Harinath was a Vishnava, and delighted in the company of pious Hindus. In 1830 Raja Harinath desired to start an English medium school, and for this he even built a school building at Saidabad. The school was inagurated by his son Krishnath on November 1, 1837, because of Raja Harinath's death. Thus it was Raja Harinath who paved the way for the spread of Education, and it was followed by his next generation. Raja Harinath died in 1832 AD (Aghrayan 1239 B.S.) at the age of 32, leaving behind one son Krishnath (কৃষ্ণনাথ) a minor, one daughter Govinda Sundari, and his widow Rani Harasundari.
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Raja Krishnath (রাজা কৃষ্ণনাথ) [1822-1844 AD]

Krishnath was born on 1822 AD. He was only 10 years old when his father Raja Harinath died. Krishnath was educated with great care. He could both speak and write English with great ease. William Stephen Lambrick (উলিয়াম স্টিফেন ল্যামব্রিক) (Lambrick died at Berhampore on the October 13, 1842, at the age of 36, and was burried at Berhampore Cemetery), Raja Digambar Mitra (রাজা দিগম্বর মিএ) and Shibaprasad (শিবপ্রসাদ), a scholar of Hindu College, were his tutors. Under Lambrick he learnt English, History, Geometry, Geography ad Chemistry and the hours of study were from seven till ten in the morning and agin from three till half past four in the afternoon. He was thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the Renaissance - a deep quest for knowledge, a flair for new ideas and experiments, an intense attachment to what is rational and rejection of old dogma and superstitions. From his boyhood, his liberal and progressive views brought him into conflict with his family. The friendship with Digambar Mitra, which began in 1837, was not looked upon with favour by his mother and grandmother. They raised objection to his visits to the Rajbati "on the plea of his being unsound in the Hindu Faith and likely to shake Krishnath's belief". In 1838, when he was only 16 yrs, William Stephen Lambrick was entrusted by him to look after a press and publish a paper in English called the "Murshidabad News". On the 10th May, 1840, "Murshidabad Sambadpatri" (মুর্শিদাবাদ সংবাদপত্রী), the first Bengali newspaper outside Calcutta, appeared under the patronage of Krishnath. The weekly was edited by Sri Gurudayal Chowdhury (গুরুদয়াল চৌধুরী). It continued for one year only as the District Magistrate of Murshidabad was hostile to its publication. Krishnath was one of the earliest protagonists of English education in Murshidabad. In 1837, when he was a boy of 15, he contributed Rs 2000 towards the foundation of the Saidabad English School.

Digambar Mitra was responsible for installing into his mind the new spirit of the age. Under his inspiration, Krishnath joined the Landholders' Society founded by Dwarka Nath Tagore in April, 1838. On 30th November, 1839, at the age of 17, Krishnath made his first debut in politics by a speech in Bengali at the public meeting of the Landholders' Society and moved one of the resolutions of the meeting. Krishnath was very unfortunate because a strained relationship grew up between him and his mother and grandmother. In August, 1838, Krishnath made a representation to the Commissioner of Revenue that his mother and grand-mother had conspired to poison him in order that they might adopt a son and thus gain control over the property. The culmination of this embittered relationship was the institution of a suit in October 1839, in the Supreme Court by Krishnath against his mother.

Krishnath tried to return the lost glory of Cossimbazar Port. In June 15, 1839 a plan was made to start a steam ship navigation route from Cossimbazar Port to London, and wanted his countrymen to take interest in such a venture. As a result a steam ship factory was built at Gorgin Khan's (গুরগিন খাঁ) garden. But his dream remained unfulfilled because of his death.

The title of "Raja Bahadur" was conferred on him by Lord Auckland. Krishnath was fond of hunting and shooting, and undertook hunting expeditions to Maldah and neighbouring districts, accompanied by a large number of beaters and camp-followers. Krishnath frittered away the surplus that had accumulated during his minority, spending nearly half a crore of rupees within the short period of four years. He spent freely the accumulations of his minority, which amounted to several lakhs. He was extravagant to excess, and expended forty-one lakhs in four years. Krishnanath was extraordinarily attached to his servants, and even nominated his Khansamah as one of the trustees under his will. He bestowed the munificent gift of a lakh of rupee on the late Raja Digambar Mitra, C.S.I., a distinguished and wellknown member of the Hindu community. On the death of David Hare, he convened a memorial meeting and contributed the largest sum.

Raja Krishnath died by his own hand, on 31st October, 1844. On the previous day he drafted his will, bequeathed the bulk of his estates for educational purposes. In his will he mentioned that Government should take possession of his properties and apply the same to the establishment of a College to be called the Krishnath University of Banjetia.

"Krishnath was perhaps the first Indian to think about the establishment of an University with a Medical College and a Hospital in a Muffisil town of Bengal in 1842, when there was no contemplation of having a university and where in what later becomes the British India. Perhaps the only redeeming feature in his otherwise insular life was this conception, when he looked up into the sky and envisaged the largeness of the world and its beauty." [ Dr. Somendra Chandra Nandy ]

In Krishnath's will, a monthly allowance of Rs 1,500 only was provided for his wife Maharani Swarnomoyee (মহারানী স্বর্ণময়ী), and withholding the permission to adopt a son and heir. To his private servant, Keshav Chandra Sircar, he bequeathed three lacs of rupees, besides several houses and jewels. Provision was also made for the supply of daily food to the blind, the lame and the crippled. This will formed the subject of litigation in the Supreme Court, the litigants being The East India Company, the widow Maharani Swarnomoyee, Mr. C.G. Strettel and Keshav Chandra Sircar. The Company and Keshav Chandra Sircar claimed under the will, while the Maharani denied its validity. The will was dated the 30th October. 1844. The Court held that the mind of the Raja Krishnath, a prey to anguish and fear, had become unsettled and weakened at the time of the execution of the instrument, the day after which he shot himself at Calcutta, whither he had fled from Cossimbazar to avoid molestation. The Court decreed the suit in the Rani's favour. The estates were in a chaotic state at the time the Rani entered upon possession; but with prudent management, in which she was materially helped by her Dewan, Rai Rajib Lochan Rai Bahadur (রাজীবলোচন রায় বাহাদুর), the estates were soon restored to a very flourishing condition.

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Maharani Swarnomoyee (মহারানী স্বর্ণময়ী) [1838-1897 AD]

The Maharani was born in 1838 AD, and came into the Cossimbazar family by marriage, as the wife of Raja Krishnath Rai Bahadur, the last of the direct line from Krishna Kanta Nandy. Swarnomoyee became a widow at an early age of 17 years. She had no son, but two daughters Lakshmi (লক্ষ্মী) and Saraswati (সরস্বতী). Her name is a household word in Bengal, and is synonymous with all that is noble and good in woman. She spent the majority of her wealth on scholarships, endowments, and a wide range of philanthropic causes. To her no charity appealed in vain, she was in fact the "Baroness Burdett-Coutts of Bengal".

Her beneficence and loyalty brought her prominently to notice, and on 11th August 1871 AD, She received, as a personal distinction, the title of Maharani from Lord Mayo, and as a further reward, a promise that the title of Maharaja should be revived in the person of her nephew and heir, Maharaja Manindra Chandra Nandy. On this occassion held at the Cossimbazar Palace Mr. E.W Monony, the commissioner of Rajshahi was present. On August 20, 1872, the Lieutenant-Governor Sir George Campbell paid the Maharani a visit at Cossimbazar. The Maharani was seated behind the parda. Sir Campbell and party were received by Dewan Rajib Lochan Rai Bahadur who also acted as interpreter between His Excellency and the Maharani. Sir Campbell complemented her by calling her the "best female subject of the queen in the Bengal presidency". On 12th March 1875, the Government showed a further mark of its recognition of the great services rendered by her during the famine of 1874, by again pledging itself to extend to her successor the title of Maharaja. The Order of the Imperial Crown of India was conferred upon Maharani Swarnomoyee in 1878 AD. On 14th August 1878 she received the Insignia of the Order, together with the Royal letters patent, at a Durbar held at the Cossimbazar Palace by Mr Frederick Barns Peacock the Commissioner of Dacca. On this occassion Mr Peacock enumerated some of her prominent acts of charity, which, up to the year 1876-77, showed an estimated expenditure of eleven lakhs of rupees. As many more lakhs were spent in the course of the years following this occasion.

The hostel for the lady students attending the Calcutta Medical College, in which they live during the period of their studies, was one of her gifts. For this She donated Rs 1,50,000. The foundation stone was laid by Lady Dufferin. "I went off to lay the foundation-stone of a home for girls studying medicine. The money for it has been given by the Maharanee Surnomoyee, who seems to be a most charitable lady. The ceremony was the same as usual, and I was given a very handsome trowel." [ March 11, 1885 AD; Hariot Hamilton Temple Blackwood, Marchioness of Dufferin & Ava ]. Maharani Swarnomoyee paid annually twenty thousand rupees towards the maintenance of the Berhampore College; She distributed clothes to poor Brahmins, mendicants, and others; and fed a large number of people on festival days. "Swarnomoyee Water-works" were opened with much ceremony by the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, Sir John Woodburn, in July 31, 1899, for supply of pure water to the town of Berhampur, at a cost of about Rs. 2,70,000. The Maharani with great generosity, offered to bear the whole cost of the works. The sum of Rs. 162,000 was paid by her before her death, and her nephew and successor Maharaja Manindra Chandra Nandy then expressed a desire to bear the balance of the expense in order to give effect to the desire of their deceased relative. The people of Berhampore still call the Municipality water-taps as "Rani Kol" (রানীকল Queen Taps). Some of Maharani Swarnomoyee's acts of charity :: 30 Bigha of land for Krishnagar College new building in 1851 AD; for a Technical School at Murshidabad, donated Rs 20,000 to the State Governmane in 1887 AD; for Khagra London Missionary Society (L.M.S.) School, Murshidbad Rs 5,000; for higher education of Indian Woman Rs 3,000 in 1883 AD; for Hindu Hostel, Kolkata Rs 4,000 in 1879 AD; for Scholarship of bright students Rs 5,000 in 1881 AD; for London Imperial Jubilee Institution Rs 5,000 in 1887 AD; for Indian Science Association Rs 8,000; for She donated the total land for Shibpur Bengal Engineering College, Kolkata in 1881 AD. The list is endless....

In 1873 AD Babu Kishori Chand Mitra (বাবু কিশোরী চাঁদ মিএ) wrote about her, in Calcutta Review : "She was a Rachel who would not be comforted (after husband's death). She would be a Savitri but She gradually found solace in a career of active benevolence. Hers has been an over flowing, never ending and ever beginning benevolence... the charity of Maharani Sarnomoyee has been grandly catholic unalloyed by any unworthy motives, rising above distinctions of creed and colour, and benefitting nationalities.""

Maharani Swarnomoyee died on 25th August, 1897 AD, universally mourned by the people of Bengal. Maharani Swarnomoyee's name was a household word in Bengal, and even today it is venerated. On the death of the Maharani Swarnomoyee, the estate reverted to her mother-in-law, Rani Harasundari, a recluse at Benares, who relinquished her right in favour of the reversionary heir, Manindra Chandra Nandy, her grandson by her daughter Govinda Sundari. An honorarium of nine lakhs and a monthly allowance of ten thousand rupees was settled on her during her lifetime. The reversionary heir, Manindra Chandra, the only surviving son of Govinda Sundari, daughter of Rani Harasundari, succeeded to the estate by virtue of a deed of relinquishment executed by Rani Harasundari.

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Manindra Chandra Nandy (মনীন্দ্র চন্দ্র নন্দী) [1860-1929 AD]

Maharaja Manindra Chandra Nandy was born on 29th May, 1860 AD (17th of Jaistha, in 1267 BS). A chain of misfortunes befell him while very young, for he lost his mother when he was barely two years of age, his father died when he was twelve, and his elder brother passed away in his thirteenth year. Illness of a virulent type, at the comparatively young age of fourteen, stood in his way of obtaining school education, but when change of air and skilful medical treatment recruited his health, he improved his knowledge by private study. Pursuant to the promise held out to Maharani Swarnomoyee, the Government of India conferred the title of Maharaja upon him on May 30, 1898 AD.

The Maharaja was a great benefactor to his country and a great patron of learning who spent a huge portion of his immense wealth towards the cause of education. In this effort also we see his affinity of "kinship of souls" with Swami Vivekananda who commented "So long as the millions live in hunger and ignorance, I held every man a traitor who having been educated at their expenses, pays not the least heed to them." This thought of Swami Vivekananda inspired the Maharaja. He founded and maintained as many as 60 educational institutions. The Krishnath College is one of the monuments of his achievements. He maintained the "Berhampore Krishnath College", at an annual expense of Rs. 45,000, and also all the boarding establishments and messes attached to the college and college school at an annual expense of Rs. 15,000. For the accommodation of the college school students the Maharaja spent about Rs. 1,50,000 upon the large new building which was constructed on the site (1863-1868 AD), had been transferred by the Government, free of revenue, to the college authorities (May 14, 1887). From 1902 to 1923 AD, on various occations his donation amounted to Rs 8,95,562 for Krishnath College. At Mathrun, Burdwan, his ancestral village, he established an English high school, with a hostel attached to it, at a cost of half a lakh of rupees; he maintained high schools at Saktipur, Ethora, Beldanga, Jabagram, Saidabad, and Ulipur, where the children of his tenants received education at a nominal fee. At his own expense he has sent out students to England, Japan, America, Austria, and other parts of the world to obtain experience in industrial concerns. The Association for the Scientific and Industrial Education of Indians, the National College, the Bengal Technical Institution, the Deaf and Dumb School, the School for Blind Children, the Mahakali Pathshala in Calcutta and at Berhampore, and the Mohula Ramkrishna Ashram count him among their patrons. For the encouragement of artisans and agriculturists, he held an annual exhibition at the Banjetia Gardens, Cossimbazar, the major portion of the expenses being borne by him.

He was the foremost patron of Bengali literature: He engaged Pandit Rash Behari Sankhatirtha to edit the great Vaishnav Granthas, He commissioned Babu Jogeswar Banerjee to prepare a most valuable work on the history of the civilization of the world, and also appointed Babu Lalit Mohan Banerjee and Babu Radhakamal Mukherjee to be editors respectively of the Vaishnav magazine "Gouranga Shebak" and a magazine of a general character called "Upasana". The sites on which the Bangiya Sahitya Parishad building stands was a free gift by the Maharaja. The Sahitya Sanmelan, for promoting the advancement of the Bengali language and literature, was first held in 1907 under his auspices at the Cossimbazar Palace. At first it was scheduled to be held on 1906 (1313 Boisakh, Bengali Year), but due to the sudden death of Mohim Chandra Nandy (মোহিমচন্দ্র নন্দী eldest son of Manindra Chandra Nandy), it was deferred till next year. For educational progress alone he spent a lakh and a half annually, two lakhs were given for other charitable purposes, and he expended annually about Rs. 1,500 towards the maintenance of Sanskrit Toles. He contributed Rs. 15,000 in the construction of the "Albert Victor Hospital" at Belgachia, Rs. 5,000 for Daulatpur College, Rs. 5,000 for a library at Navadwip, Rs. 50,000 for Rangpur College, and Rs. 5,000 for the Puri Ved Vidyalaya. He established the Curzon Charitable Hospital at Cossimbazar, he maintained similar institutions at Ulipore, Rajshahi, and Ballia, which were founded by his aunt and predecessor, Maharani Swarnomoyee.

A Patriot

Manindra Chandra was also a great patriot. It is to be noted that Surya Sen (মাস্টারদা সূর্য সেন Master Da Surya Sen), the famous revolutionary associated with the Chittagong Armory raid and Sahid Nalini Bagchi, were ex-students of Krishnath College. During the Swadeshi Movement and afterwards many students migrated to West Bengal from the East Bengal. They were harassed and severely punished by the British police and administration. Manindra Chandra always helped them to take admission into Krishnath College. Both Manindra Chandra and Srish Chandra, his son used to send prior information regarding the arrival of the police for their arrest.
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Awards & Offices Held

He had been Chairman of the Berhampore Municipality for more than fifteen years, and had held important offices in such influential bodies as the British Indian Association, the Bengal Landholders Association, the Bengal National Chamber of Commerce, and the Murshidabad Association. In 1912 he was elected to the Imperial Council as representative of Bengal landholders, and he was again returned in the year 1915. He was Chairman of Murshidabad District Board since 1922; Honorary Fellow of Calcutta University; President, All India Hindu Sabha; President, Bengal Landholders' Association, 1918-1920; President, British Indian Association, Calcutta, 1922, 1923 and 1929. President, Murshidabad Association, since 1897; President, All India Exhibitions, Calcutta, 1918 and 1922; Member, Indian Legislative Council, 1913-1921; Member, Council of State, since 1921; founder of a Chair in the Benares Hindu University and one of Science in Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose Laboratory in Calcutta; During the year 1914 he contributed Rs. 5,000 towards the Medical College and Hospital for Women and the Nurses Training Institution at Delhi in memory of the late Lady Hardinge, who initiated the scheme. When His Majesty the King-Emperor conferred Birthday Honours in June 1915, the Maharaja received the well-merited distinction of K.C.I.E (Knight Commander). Maharaja Manindra Chandra took keen interest in public and political affairs, and was a munificent patron of education, agriculture, literature, art, music, science and development of home industries.
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His Publications

Magazine "Upasana"; Vaishnav magazine "Gouranga Shebak"; B.S. Panjika; The Indian Medicinal Plant; A History of Indian Philosophy; Great Vaisnava Granthas; Part 10 of Shrimad Bhagwat Katha; Fundamental Unity of India; History of Indian Shipping and Indian Maritime Activity.

Manindra Chandra was married with Maharani Kashiswari (মহারানী কাশীশ্বরী), of Khirgram, Burdwan at the age of 17. He had 3 son's and 2 daughters. His eldest son Mohim Chandra Nandy died in 1906 AD. Manindra Chandra died on 12th November 1929 AD. The vision of Raja Krishnath was articulated by Manindra Chandra Nandy who correctly realized that India was to be "Born through education".

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Srish Chandra Nandy (শ্রীশ চন্দ্র নন্দী) [1897-1952 AD]

The last zamindar of the Cossimbazar Raj before the abolition of the zamindari system was Maharaja Srish Chandra Nandi (1897-1952 AD), son of Maharaja Manindra Chandra Nandy who entered the Bengal Legislative Assembly from the landlord's quota in 1937, and became a minister in the cabinet of Ak Fazlul Haque (1937-1942 AD). He married Maharani Nilima Prova Devi. His marriage was lately celebrated with great splendor, when there was a continual flow of gaities and festivities for about a fortnight. Maharaja Srish Chandra studied from Krishnath College School and Krishnath College Berhampore having graduated with distinction. He joined the Post-Graduate classes in History in the Presidency College, Calcutta; Obtained his M.A. degree in 1920 in History securing a very high place in the University list and also took a course of training in French and German. He also completed the Law Course for the B.L. Examination; but due to his pre-occupation with Zamindary affairs, he had to give up the idea of obtaining a degree.

The Maharaja began to take keen interest in sports from his school days. While in the College, he obtained a District Championship in Tennis in 1914. His special favourites were Tennis and Billiards. The Maharaja was noted for his literary abilities. Even as a College student he produced a five-act-drama named Dasyu-Duhita (A Robber's Daughter). Upon his friends requests his comic drama Monopathy (A pathological study of the mind) was published. His other publications are : Bengal Rivers And our Economic Welfare, Bengal's River Problems, Flood And Its Remedy, Rationale of Food Crisis, Selected Public Speeches, etc. He had also contributed occasionally to the Modern Review, The Hindusthan Standard and the Arthik jagat, etc. He presided over several literary conferences.

The Maharaja was a popular figure in the sphere of Fine Arts, Literature, Music, Sports and educational activities, etc. He took keen interest in all forward movements and was connected with them either as President or in similar important capacities. Maharaja Srish Chandra Nandy died in 1952 AD. Maharaja Srish Chandrs's son Dr Somendra Chandra Nandy (ডঃ সৌমেন্দ্র চন্দ্র নন্দী) is a well-reputed historian and scenarist (নাট্যকার). He is the author of the famous book "The Life and Times of Cantoo Baboo", about his ancestor Krishna Kanta Nandy and the political, economical, social and commercial history of bengal of 18-19th century (1742-1804 AD). On May 3, 2011 - Dr. Somendra Chandra Nandy has been awarded Honorary Fellowship of the Asiatic Society, on the 226th Annual General Meeting, for his outstanding contributions in the field of history and historical studies.

Mahatma Gandhi, father of our nation, visited Berhampore on August 1925 AD on the occasion of the collection for the subscription of the Deshbandhu Memorial Fund. A meeting was held at Krishnath College where Gandhiji commented, "I have known his great charities since 1915 when I had the honour of coming in contact with the Maharaja Bahadur but I never realized till I came here what was the quantity of these charities. I understand from reliable sources that they amount to more than One Crore of Rupees. I had flattered myself with the belief that my Parsee friends beat everyone on the face of the earth in their charities and I suppose now that statement will stand unchallenged as far as the whole community is concerned; but so far as individuals are concerned, I do not recollect a single Parsee name that has exceeded the charities of Cossimbazar".

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Gallery :: Cossimbazar Raj

Notes & References : :
  • A history of Murshidabad District (Bengal) (1902) - By John Henry Tull
  • The Musund Of Murshidabad (1704-1904) - By Purna Ch. Majumdar
  • University of Calcutta The Calendar for the Year 1890
  • Krishnath College Centenary Volume
  • Bengal District Gazetteers, Murshidabad - By Lewis Sydney Steward O'Malley (1914)
  • Bengal and Assam, Behar and Orissa Their history, people, commerce and industrial resources - By Somerset Playne (1917)
  • Our Viceregal Life in India (1884-1888) - By Marchioness of Dufferin & Ava
  • The golden book of India - By Sir Lethbridge, Roper 1840-1919
  • The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume 2 - By Dharma Kumar, Tapan Raychaudhuri, Meghnad Desai
  • History of British India (1840) Volume 3 - By James Mill, 1773-1836, Horace Hayman Wilson 1786-1860
  • Debgoner Morte Agomon - By Durga Charan Roy (BN 1319)
  • [1] śālagrāma, śālagrāma-śilā শালগ্রাম, শালগ্রাম-শিলা : n a black-geode worshipped as the symbol of Vishnu (বিষ্ণু) Back
  • [2] Based on its direction of coiling, Shankha or conch Shell has two varieties. These are ::
    a) Daksnivarta or Dakshinavarta or Dakshinavarti ("right-turned" as viewed with the aperture uppermost): this is the very rare sinistral form of the species, where the shell coils or whorls expand in a counterclockwise spiral if viewed from the apex of the shell.
    b) Vamavarta ("left-turned" as viewed with the aperture uppermost): this is the very commonly occurring dextral form of the species, where the shell coils or whorls expand in a clockwise spiral when viewed from the apex of the shell. Back
    [ Dakshinavarti Shankh :: ]
  • [3] 'Rudraksha' has its etymological origin in the Sanskrit words, 'Rudra' and 'Aksha'. 'Rudra' is another name for Lord Shiva, and 'aksha' means teardrop. Mythological tales have it that the Rudraksha plant was born out of Lord Shiva's tear drops. The seed of the Rudraksha tree (Elaeocarpus granitrus) holds a very special place in Hinduism, and is credited to possess mystical and divine properties. Rudraksha beads are classified on the basis of the number of "mukhis" - the clefts and furrows - they have on the surface. The scriptures speak of 1 to 38 mukhis, but Rudrakshas of 1 to 14 mukhis are commonly found. Back
    [ Rudraksha :: ]
  • [4] The title was conferred, as a personal distinction, on 24th May 1892 AD, in recognition of his eminence as a Sanskrit Scholar. It entitles him to take rank in Durbar immediately after titular Rajas. The title Nyáyapanchánan is a literary title or degree, conferred by the learned Pandits of the Sanskrit University of Navadwip or Nadiya, and refers to proficiency in the Nyáya school of logic. Back
    [ The golden book of India - By Sir Roper Lethbridge (1840-1919) ]

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